稲葉 昭英 (2005) 家族と少子化. 社会学評論. 56(1):38-54

Bibliographical Information

Category:
Academic Paper
Number:
a31
Author:
稲葉 昭英 || Inaba Akihide
Date:
2005
Title:
家族と少子化 || The Family and Below-Replacement Fertility in Japan
Source:
社会学評論 || Japanese Sociological Review
Page:
56(1):38-54
URL:
http://www.journalarchive.jst.go.jp/japanese/jnlabstract_ja.php?cdjournal=jsr1950&cdvol=56&noissue=1&startpage=38
Abstract:
未婚化・晩婚化だけでなく, 夫婦出生率の低下も少子化の一因であることが近年の研究から明らかにされている.本研究は, この夫婦の出生率の低下に家族的要因がどのように関与しているのかを検討する.まず, これまで指摘されてきた社会経済要因説, 価値意識要因説, ジェンダー要因説の3つの仮説の論理的な関係を検討し, 子ども数の選好の変化が論理的に重要であることを示す.ついで, 先行研究および出生動向基本調査の結果を検討したが, ジェンダー要因説を支持する結果はほとんど得られなかった.むしろ, 夫婦の出生率の低下は, 子どもの福祉を追求するために子ども数を制限するという選好の変化から生じている可能性が示唆された.最後に行ったNFRJ98 データを用いた乳幼児をかかえた女性の家族役割負担感などについての分析からも, ジェンダー要因説は支持されなかった.育児期には性別役割分業が顕在化するが, そうした課題が夫婦ではなく親族を中心としたネットワーク内で分担されるために, ジェンダー要因説が成立しないことが示唆された. 夫婦出生率の低下は, 家族の新たな変化の帰結というよりは, 性別役割分業にもとづいて子どもの福祉追求を行うという, これまでの家族のあり方に根ざした動向と考えられる. || It is well known that not only the increase of both unmarried and the married late in life, but also the lowering of marital fertility is the cause of below-replacement fertility in Japan. This paper aims to examine the ways and processes that family factors affect this lowering of marital fertility.
At first, I specify the three main hypotheses described in previous studies : socioeconomic causation hypothesis, value and attitude causation hypothesis, and gender causation hypothesis. I examine the logical relation among these three hypotheses, and show the logical importance of preference changes in child numbers by using the Boolean approach.
Next, I show that neither the findings of previous empirical studies nor the results of the Japanese National Fertility Survey support the gender causation hypothesis. Rather, it is suggested that the lowering of marital fertility might be explained by the changes in people’s preferences to control the numbers of children for the pursuit of their wellbeing.
Third, using the NFRJ98 data, I analyze the family role overload feeling among married women who have babies and infants. These analyses do not support the gender hypothesis. The sexual division of labor is apparent in this life stage, but their feeling of a family role overload is very low. It is suggested that because tasks are not shared between husbands and wives, but rather shared among social networks members including close relatives, the gender causation hypothesis is not supported. It seems more plausible that the lowering of marital fertility is induced by the pursuit of children’s well-being along with the traditional sexual division of labor within the family, rather than the products of some new changes in the family.
Keywords:
性別役割分業, ジェンダー || below-replacement fertility, sexual division of labor, gender
Note:
ERRATA on 56(3):778; http://www.journalarchive.jst.go.jp/jnlerratapdf.php?cdjournal=jsr1950&cdvol=56&noissue=3&startpage=778
Relation:
Dataset:
[NFRJ98]
Created: 2012-02-20. Updated: 2012-03-28.

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